Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications

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IET Digital Library

This title is available electronically through the IET Digital Library

  • Author:

  • Year: 2014

  • Format: Hardback

  • Product Code: SBRA5040

  • ISBN: 978-1-61353-013-9

  • Pagination: 304pp

  • Stock Status: In stock

£61.75 Member price

£95.00 Full price


Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR).

With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.  

Key topics include;

  • basic principles of radar backscattering, radar imaging, and signal analysis
  • the characteristics of radar returns from targets
  • how to produce well-focused ISAR images of moving targets
  • features that can extracted from ISAR images
  • several important algorithms are introduced for ISAR image formation, ISAR image auto-focusing, and applications of ISAR imaging to air targets, sea vessels and ground moving targets
  • examples of ISAR imaging of ground moving targets, air targets, and sea vessels are discussed in detail

Supplementary material files can be found on IET Digital Library.


"This new text is an excellent addition to the radar literature for both students and experienced practitioners. Both Dr Chen and Prof. Martorella are mature lecturers, and this shows in the development of the algorithms from the basic physics to the advanced radar applications. Most importantly, their MATLAB code closely follows the chapters, and demystifies the science. This text can be equally used for both graduate level courses and for development of radar applications in industry.Mark E Davis, Life Fellow IEEE, Prospect NY USA

About the Authors

Victor C. Chen is internationally recognized for his work on radar micro-Doppler signatures and time frequency analysis. Dr. Chen received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, Ohio. Since 1982, he has worked with several companies in the United States and the Radar Division at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. He has worked on ISAR imaging, time-frequency analysis for radar signal and imaging, and radar micro-Doppler signature analysis. He has published more than 150 papers in journals and proceedings. He has authored, co-authored, and edited several books, including Time-Frequency Transforms for Radar Imaging and Signal Analysis (Artech House, 2002) and The micro-Doppler Effect in Radar (Artech House, 2011). Dr. Chen is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Marco Martorella is a Professor at the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Pisa and an external Professor at the University of Cape Town where he leads lectures on high resolution and imaging radar within the Masters in Radar and Electronic Defence course. He is author of more than 120 international journal and conference papers and three book chapters. He has presented several tutorials and short courses on ISAR at international radar conferences and in several research institutions in US, Australia, South Africa and Europe. He is a member of the IET Radar Sonar and Navigation Editorial Board and chair of the NATO SET-196 on multichannel/multistatic radar imaging of noncooperative targets. He has been recipient of the IEEE 2013 Fred Nathanson Memorial Radar Award.

Book readership

Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is essential reading for academics, advanced radar engineers and government and industry professionals.

Book contents

1 Introduction to ISAR Imaging 1
1.1 SAR and ISAR Concepts at a Glance 2
1.2 Brief Historical Overview of SAR and ISAR 5
1.3 Fundamentals of ISAR Imaging 6
1.4 ISAR Image Resolution 15
1.5 Main Differences between ISAR and Optical Images 16
1.6 Conclusions 18
References 19

2 Basic Principles of ISAR Imaging 21
2.1 ISAR Scattering Model 21
2.2 ISAR Signal Waveforms 25
2.3 Radar Ambiguity Function 37
2.4 Matched Filter 39
2.5 Point Spread Function in ISAR Imaging 41
2.6 ISAR Image Projection Plane 43
2.7 ISAR Image Processing 47
2.8 Bistatic ISAR 51
References 55

3 ISAR Image Formation 57
3.1 ISAR Range-Doppler Image Formation 57
3.2 Time-Frequency–Based Image Formation 67
3.3 Display 2-D ISAR Imagery—Windowing and
Zero Padding for Sidelobe Suppression 74
References 75

4 ISAR Motion Compensation 77
4.1 Translational Motion Compensation 77
4.2 Rotational Motion Compensation 94
References 102

5 ISAR Autofocus Algorithms 105
5.1 Prominent Point Processing Autofocus 105
5.2 Phase Gradient Autofocus Algorithm 114
5.3 Image Contrast-Based Autofocus 116
5.4 Entropy Minimization–Based Autofocus 124
5.5 Keystone Transform in ISAR 126
References 131

6 Signal Processing Issues in ISAR Imaging 133
6.1 ISAR Imaging in the Presence of Target’s Complex Motion 133
6.2 ISAR Imaging in the Presence of Strong Noise and Clutter 138
6.3 Sidelobes and Their Reduction and Cancellation in ISAR
Imaging 150
References 159

7 ISAR Target Feature Extraction 161
7.1 Feature Extraction from 2-D ISAR Imagery 163
7.2 Extraction of Micro-Doppler Features from ISAR Data 166
7.3 Summary 174
References 175

8 ISAR Imaging for Refocusing Moving Targets in SAR Images 177
8.1 Review of Spotlight SAR Algorithms 179
8.2 Projection of SAR Image onto Wavenumber Domain—Inversion Mapping 185
8.3 Examples 188
References 196

9.1 FMCW Radar for SAR and ISAR Imaging 199
9.2 FMCW ISAR Received Signal Model 201
9.3 FMCW ISAR Processing 203
9.4 Example of FMCW ISAR Autofocusing 210
References 213

10 Bistatic ISAR 215
10.1 Basics of ISAR Imaging 215
10.2 Geometry and Modeling 217
10.3 Bistatically Equivalent Monostatic ISAR Geometry 218
10.4 Bistatic ISAR Image Formation 219
10.5 Bistatic ISAR Image Interpretation 222
10.6 The Effect of Synchronization Errors on B-ISAR Imaging 224
10.7 Examples 232
10.8 Multistatic ISAR 241
References 245

11 Polarimetric ISAR 247
11.1 Signal Model 248
11.2 Image Formation and Point Spread Function 250
11.3 Polarimetric ISAR Image Autofocus 251
11.4 Polarimetric ISAR Image Interpretation 255
References 258

12 Applications of ISAR Imaging 261
12.1 Case Study 1: Ground-Based ISAR Images of a Noncooperative Sailing Ship 262
12.2 Case Study 2: Airborne ISAR Imaging of a Noncooperative Cargo Ship 267
12.3 Case Study 3: Dual Ground-Based/Satellite ISAR Imaging of a Noncooperative Sailing Ship 270
12.4 Case Study 4: Ground-Based ISAR Imaging of Airplanes 271
12.5 Case Study 5: Extraction of Doppler Features from ISAR
Data of Small Vessels in Sea Clutter 274
References 281