Foliage Penetration Radar

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  • Book title: Foliage Penetration Radar: detection & characterisation of objects under trees

  • Author:

  • Year: 2011

  • Format: Hardback

  • Product Code: SBRA0070

  • ISBN: 978-1-89112-100-5

  • Pagination: 320 pp.

  • Stock Status: In stock

£62.40 Member price

£96.00 Full price


This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Comparisons of the technologies for radar design and signal processing are presented, as are specific design approaches for transmitter design for operation in a dense radio frequency spectrum. Adaptive processing to remove the effects of radio and television signals from the system are also covered.

In 10 years, FOPEN systems will find use in crop monitoring, land mine remediation, and creating digital maps under trees. This book will be the foundation for continued research for years to come both for radar and systems engineers in defense and earth resources companies. Government researchers, program managers and planners who have an interest in the unique capabilities of this radar technology, as well as university staff and faculty teaching radar and signal processing will find this book a critical part of their learning for years to come.

Book contents

Key Features

* Ultrawideband waveform design and analysis including: methods for generating ultrawideband signals that do not interfere with emergency or flight safety frequencies; adaptive processing to reconstruct signals in a dense radio frequency interference environment.

* Characteristics of clutter, foliage scattering, and propagation that affect the detection and characterization of vehicles, buildings and terrain features.

* Specific studies into the benefits of: polarization for reduction of false alarms and characterizing vehicles under foliage; terrain features for land use cover characterization; generation of digital elevation maps for “bare earth” under the trees.

* Image formation processing with an emphasis on use of real time high performance processing, change detection and automatic target detection and classification.

* History of FOPEN with details of early systems that have only recently been released.

* Advanced topics that provide additional uses of FOPEN systems including: simultaneous SAR and GMTI operation; bistatic SAR utilizing a FOPEN GMTI radar’s waveform.

1. History of Battlefield Surveillance


1.1.1. Camp Sentinel RADAR


1.1.3. Doppler Frequency of Dismount Targets

1.2. Synthetic Aperture Dual Frequency RADAR (SADFRAD)

1.3. Summary

2. Foliage Penetration SAR Collection Systems

2.1. SAR Resolution

2.2. FOPEN SAR Systems


2.2.2. Sweden’s CARABAS RADAR

2.2.3. NADC’s P-3 Ultra Wideband SAR

2.2.4. NASA JPL’s GeoSAR P-band Interferometric Mapping SAR

2.2.5. ARL’s BoomSAR

3. Foliage Penetration Phenomena

3.1. Foliage Phase Effects on RADAR Propagation

3.2. Standard Calibration for FOPEN Measurements

3.3. Standard RCS Target Characteristics

3.3.1. Metal Sphere

3.3.2. Top Hat Reflector

3.3.3. Dihedral Corner Reflector

3.3.4. Trihedral Corner Reflector

3.4. Foliage Clutter Scattering Characteristics

3.5. Foliage Attenuation

3.6. Internal Clutter Motion

3.7. Target Characteristics

3.8. Radio Frequency Interference Spectrum

4. FOPEN SAR Image Formation

4.1. FOPEN SAR Collection Geometry

4.2. FOPEN SAR Waveform

4.2.1. Linear Frequency Modulation Waveform

4.2.2. SAR Phase History

4.2.3. Sampled Fast-Time Formulation

4.2.4. Stretch Processing

4.3. SAR Image Formation

4.3.1. Back Projection Algorithm

4.3.2. Range Migration Algorithm

4.4. SAR Motion Compensation

4.4.1. Motion Measurement

4.4.1. Motion Effects on RMA Image Focus

5. Radio Frequency Interference Suppression

5.1. Transmit Waveform Design for RFI Environment

5.1.1. Intercept of FOPEN Signal by Receiver

5.1.2. Frequency Jump Burst

5.1.3. Notched Linear FM Waveform

5.1.4. Impact of Notching on IPR

5.1.5. Notched LFM Integrated Side Lobe Response

5.2. Cancellation of Radio Frequency Interference

5.2.1. Adaptive Transverse Filter

5.2.2. Chirp Least Squares Adaptive Processing

5.2.3. Deramp RFI Removal

5.2.4. Adaptive RFI Removal

6. FOPEN Target Detection and Characterization

6.1. Target Detection Processing

6.1.1. Polarization Whitening

6.1.2. Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processing

6.2. Polarimetric Scattering

6.2.1. Scattering Entropy

6.2.2. Polarization Entropy

6.2.3. Polarization Basis Vectors

6.3. Target Characterization

6.3.1. FOPEN Target Features

6.4. RADCON Processing Development

6.5. Change Detection

6.5.1. Single Pass Change Detection

6.5.2. Repeat Pass Change Detection

6.5.3. Image Registration

6.6. FOPEN ATD/C Summary

7. FOPEN SAR Design

7.1 Concept of Operations

7.2 FOPEN SAR Hardware

7.2.1 Antenna

7.2.2 FOPEN Transmitter

7.2.3 Receiver Exciter

7.3 FOPEN SAR Design

7.3.1 Multiplicative Noise Ratio

7.3.2 FOPEN SAR Modes

7.3.3 Signal Processing Throughput

7.3.4 Data Link Bandwidth

8. FOPEN Ground Moving Target Indication


8.2 Space Time Adaptive Processing

8.2.1. STAP Theory

8.2.2. UHF STAP for GMTI RADAR Operation

8.2.3. STAP Loss

8.2.4. STAP Summary

8.3 Along-Track Interferometry

8.3.1. ATI Theory

8.3.2. SCR Effects In FOPEN GMTI RADAR Using ATI Processing

8.3.3. ATI Modeling and Simulation

8.3.4. ATI Signal Processing

8.3.5. ATI Conclusions

9. Bistatic FOPEN SAR

9.1 Bistatic RADAR

9.2 Bistatic SAR Signal Geometry

9.3 Bistatic SAR Resolution

9.3.1 Bistatic Doppler Frequency

9.3.2 Stationary Bistatic SAR Transmitter

9.3.3 Bistatic SAR Advantage

9.4 Bistatic SAR Modeling

9.4.1 Monostatic SAR

9.4.2 Pseudo-Monostatic SAR

9.4.3 90-Degree Bistatic SAR

9.4.4 Comparison of SAR Returns

9.5 Summary

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